BI 171 - Fourth Exam - 2007
Each question's number
is linked to the relevant part of the online book, if possible (some questions
relate to multiple sections).
Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the
Two Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.
1. Anaerobic metabolism can produce
a. Alcohol b. Carbon dioxide
c. Lactic acid
d. All of these e.
...there's a variety of carbon compounds that
glucose can be broken down to, even without oxygen.
2. Which testing procedure involves
a. Southern Blot b. Mass
spectroscopy c. Electrophoresis
e. The one I don't want any part of
...it tags DNA with marked mRNA for a protein whose
gene isn't known - it attached to a bit of test DNA,
with the radioactivity to indicate which bit.
3. Where would one find a typical 2nd messenger?
a. Between cells b. In the
membrane c. In the cytoplasm
d. In the nucleus
e. In a big brown truck
...the first messenger carries the message to the
cell; the second one carries the message inside the cell.
4. Group transfer potential is an important
c. Glucose d. Fertilization
e. Passenger trains
...phosphate is the transferred group, carrying all
of that energy potential.
5. An acrosome is
a. What produces spindle
b. What spindle attaches to
c. Part of plant seed
d. Part of a sperm
e. A neat word if you say it with an announcey-type voice
...it's a vesicle carrying the enzymes needed to
get to and through the egg cell membrane.
6. An embryo can be considered a fetus
a. All of the major structures have appeared
b. It can live independently
c. All of the major structures become functional
d. All of the basic tissues have formed
e. It puts in an application and gets a co-signer
..."everything" at least gets started, and then
growth and development takes over as the primary
7. The major electron transport chains produce
a. Glucose b. Carbon dioxide
c. NADH d. ATP
e. Bondage fantasies
...it's the main fuel-production stage of both
photosynthesis (where the fuel is used to synthesize
glucose) and aerobic respiration (where the fuel is just used).
8. Which are types of pigments?
a. Carotenoids b. Spindles
c. Kinases d. Ferredoxins
e. Aren't those pork-flavored lozenges?
...just a matching task.
9. Prokaryotes use what sort of structure to
separate chromosomes during cell divisions?
b. Attachment points inside the membrane
d. They don't separate them
e. They scold them and give them times-out in different corners
...each chromosome copy is attached well away from
the splitting point, in separate halves of the
10. What is found in an antenna complex?
a. Pollen b. Egg cells
c. Developing embryos
molecules e. Cell phone signals
...they absorb light and release electrons that are
fed into the reaction centers.
11. Reradiation happens when electrons
a. Jump out a level
b. Jump inward a level
c. Leave completely
d. Exchange between atoms
e. Get a mortgage they can't really afford.
...radiation absorption makes an electron (if it's
"tuned" to the radiation frequency) jump out; when it
jumps back, that's when radiation comes out at a different frequency.
12. Embryonic stem cells are valuable because
they can potentially become any type of body cell.
Which group has this type of cell?
a. Algae b. Protostomes
e. Stemmy types
...only b and d would have embryos;
in protostomes, the cells are "locked in" to becoming particular
cell types almost from their formation.
13. Which is true about ATP?
a. It breaks down to ADP and is made from ADP
b. It breaks down to AMP and is made from AMP
c. It breaks down to AMP and is made from ADP
d. It breaks down to ADP and is made from AMP
e. Too many initials! Make it stop! Make it stop!
...a phosphate off the "tri" makes a "di";
you need a "di," plus a phosphate, to make a "tri."
___D___ 14. The larger, more permanent form of a land plant is the
a. Male b. Female
e. Well, it's green, right...?
...in land plant evolution, gametophytes had to
stay small / close to the ground for sperm migration
in water, but the sporophytes could be big - better access to sunlight and
height to release spores
from. Even after sporophytes stopped making spores, they were the
bigger, permanent part.
15. Which involves a positive geotaxis?
a. Ameba moving away from the light
b. Sprouting stem growing up
c. Antelope moving away from a predator's scent
d. Sprouting root growing down
e. I didn't know they made taxis out of Geos - aren't they too small?
...positive, reacting toward the stimulus;
geo-, of the Earth / gravity.
16. Both NAD and FAD
a. Only work with ATP
b. Are taken in as B vitamins
c. Work in animals but not plants
d. Work in plants but not animals
e. Um, have "AD"s-?
...this could be done by elimination - none of the
others is a workable concept.
17. The root tip cells we checked in the lab
a. Be part of a meristem
b. Have a special chlorophyll
c. Produce a lot of polar bodies
d. All be haploid
e. Have been easier to see, seriously
...mitosis lab = cell production; meristem =
tissue that produces new cells.
18. In the Polymerase Chain Reaction, the
highest temperature is needed to
a. Separate the DNA strands from the histones
b. Get the primers to attach
c. Cause the strands of DNA to separate
d. Purify the samples
e. Keep the lab nice and toasty
...and then new complementary strands are made from
the separated strands, making copies that are then
heated to separation, cooled and copied, heated to separation, cooled...
Pick NINE questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than nine, only the first nine will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.
1. In a redox reaction, what happens to
the reactant that is -
It gains one or more electrons
It loses one or more electron.
2. Give two general tissue functions
found in both animals and plants.
Structural support (Connective tissue / Ground tissue)
|3. What are two general rationales
found in groups that do alternation of generations?
limited by sperm requirements (early land plants)
Main stage can't move (mobile sexual
stage in corals)
|Very complex life
cycle with multiple hosts
uses both types' advantages (parasites)
4. Electrophoresis separates molecules or
parts of molecules based upon what two factors?
5. What are two things that happen during
Meiosis I that never happen during mitosis?
chromosomes all moved next to
Double-strand chromosomes stay
double stranded at anaphase.
|A second division
to finish process.
has just one set of chromosomes.
|6. What are two basic features of
water that keep it moving up vascular systems of large land
Molecules stick to tube linings and "climb"
As water is being used and lost at top, its attachment to other water
molecules pulls them up the tubes.
|7. Which particular metabolic
reactions involve -
Krebs cycle of aerobic respiration -
it's the main "entry" attachment molecule.
Ammonia? Protein breakdown for
8. What are two possible benefits from a
life cycle involving metamorphosis?
|Allows larvae and
adults to occupy different niches and
not compete with each other.
specialization of one form for dispersal (usually adults).
May reflect alternation of generations
9. Give two different classes of
10. Growth in a multicellular organism
involves what two processes of the cells?
|Mitosis / cell
11. What are two different ways that
polyspermy is prevented?
|After entry of
first sperm, all other are blocked from entering
(the membrane changes so their enzymes don't work).
Any extra sperm nuclei that have
entered are expelled.
|Cells with more
than 2 sets of chromosomes quickly die.
12. What two fundamentally different things
generally happen during interphase?
Cell does whatever its basic function is.
|Cell prepares for
mitosis (if it's ever
going to divide).
13. What is
one way that genome mapping can be used in basic (non-medical) research?
...when a gene is isolated and analyzed in one
organism, a computer can scan other genomes for homologous sequences and
maybe find similar genes in other organisms.
14. How do producers and consumers
compare, in terms of -
BIOMASS Producers have
more (bottom of food chain
has to have most mass).
Consumers have more (many more niches
available - producers have limited niches)
15. What are the three major stages by
which energy moves through a food chain, in order?
Select and answer completely any four of the following
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Seven Points Each. Partial credit is possible.
1. For the two steps of photosynthesis, give the
names of the steps and for each, list all of the types of energy and/or
materials input and output.
2. Answer for respiration -
||Most common fuel -
|Step done by ALL organisms -
|Materials that can act as
terminal electron acceptors -
3. Give four sets of differences, for any
applicable species, between
larger (Holds food for embryo)
Produced in much larger numbers.
Comparatively fewer made.
some way of getting to egg cell.
reached by sperm.
one starting cell, 4 working sperm are made.
one starting cell, one working egg cell
plus 3 polar bodies are made (keeps all
of the food in one cell).
4. At the points labeled with the stars, attach
the appropriate labels from this list:
Violet. X-Ray. InfraRed. Red. Blue. Ultraviolet.
* / * *
* \ *
Ultraviolet Violet Blue
These must be visible colors.
|5. For three different types of model
research organisms, give the organism and give an area of
basic research that they are commonly used for.
human-centered issues - medical, genetic, chemical, etc.
Developmental genetics and chemistry.
6. For the three embryonic germ layers in
animals, name the layer and give one body system that is
mostly derived from that layer.
(yes, that is a system - integumentary). Nervous.
Circulatory. Excretory. Skeletal (if skeleton is internal).
Digestive. Often respiratory.
7. Give four basic steps of glycolysis.
They don't have to be in-a-row consecutive, but they do need to be in
from ATP attached to non-ring carbon of glucose.
so there's another non-ring carbon.
|Phosphate from ATP
attached to new non-ring carbon.
into 3 phosphorulated 3-carbon molecules.
|Each molecule picks
up a free phosphate (no ATP needed).
|New phosphates used
to make 2 ATP.
used to make 2 ATP.
|Molecules swap one
carbon dioxide for coenzyme A.
8. For each stage of actual
mitosis, name the stages in order and for each
describe one thing that happens only during that stage.
Interphase is not a stage of mitosis - it's the stage between
Spindles are built.
Spindles attach to chromosomes.
Chromosomes are pulled to cell equator.
Chromosomes are all held in cell equator.
Strands pop apart at centromeres.
Chromosome strands pulled away from each other.
In plants, cell plate forms.
Spindles are broken down.
No Answers for BONUS QUESTIONS.
Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on
the rest of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.
How do fungi reproduce sexually without male or female - what
do they do? Three Points.
Why is ATP the basic fuel, rather than the fuel everything makes or consumes?
Organisms seem to "break" the 2nd Law of thermodynamics. What "loophole" in the
law really allows them to do this? Three Points.
Algae often use different chlorophylls. What do the different
chlorophylls allow some of them to do? Three Points.
How does sperm behavior change (from what to what) when it
gets close to an egg cell? Three Points.
Extra sets of chromosomes are associated with what process in
plants? Three Points.
Why is vascular tissue critical to the success of pollen?
What is the basic purpose of a fruit? Three Points.
Research into what organisms led to the development of the Polymerase Chain
Reaction technique? Three Points.