BI 173 - Third Exam - 2007
Place the letter of the choice that best answers the question on the line to the left. Two Points Each.
NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.
___D___ 1. Photosynthesis is commonly found in
a. Turbellaria b. Sponges c. Apicomplexans
d. Flagellates e. The hardest questions
...they are the most likely to be plant-animals,
although corals may have photosynthetic symbionts
in them (that's why cnidarians aren't a choice).
___B___ 2. Most action-oriented hormones in vertebrate systems get released as a response to
a. Direct feedback to the particular gland
b. Tropic hormones
...the key word here is "response" - the direct
input that gets these hormones released is tropic
c. Nervous connections to the particular gland d. Releasing factors
e. Peer pressure
hormones "telling" the glands to release them.
___D___ 3. It is found that a male cardinal will attack any of these: another cardinal, another red bird, a round red swinging pendulum;
it won't attack an accurately-painted model of a cardinal. This indicates that one possible sign stimulus is
a. An intruder bird b. A competing male c. Territory
d. Motion e. Being punked by researchers
...an accurate model would be red but not moving;
here, it looks like the sign stimulus is motion (we
haven't tested the red part here, every choice is red).
___D___ 4. Symbiotic organisms are likely to perform a critical part in
a. Coordination of muscles b. Digestion of animal tissues c. Production of hormones
d. Digestion of plant tissues e. Helping figure out which tops go with which pants
...very few animals have enzymes that can handle
plant fiber; they need their symbionts for that.
___A___5. Vitamins are defined as
a. Coenzymes that humans cannot synthesize b. Coenzymes that humans must synthesize
...the definition may not always be reliably
followed, but that's it.
c. Enzymes that humans cannot synthesize d. Enzymes that humans must synthesize
e. Those chemicals invented by the Flintstones
___D___6. Which is not a type of hormone action?
a. Metabolic b. Flight or fight c. Digestive
d. Salivary e. The irritated punch to the face
...saliva is an exocrine secretion - not even the
right type of gland.
___C___7. Which are examples of particularly
a. Octopus & dolphin b. Bees & chimpanzee
c. Squid & ants d. All of these
...it's the only choice without vertebrates in it.
e. I see no signs of intelligence anywhere
___B___8. People who have had Giardiasis (beaver fever) resist reinfection because
a. They have become immune
b. The parasites prevent it c. The parasites leave the system
d. All of these e. It was just too much fun the first time - they couldn't stand that much fun again
...you don't get immune to intestinal microbes -
you have to depend on your resident parasites helping
___B___9. Target cells are the "targets" of
a. Digestive enzymes
b. Hormones c. Neurotransmitters d. Particular neuron types e. Bio-bullets
...they're the ones with those hormones' receptors.
___B___10. Proglottids should contain
a. Attachment structures
b. Reproductive structures c. Radial symmetry
...part of knowing what they are is knowing what
d. Cilia e. Some sort of warning stickers:
Could make students' brains overload
___A___11. Which go through alternation of generations?
a. Corals & malaria parasites b. Trematodes & sponges
c. Tapeworms & amebas d. Hydras & sponges
e. The ones that can't make up their ganglia
...match the feature with the group examples.
___D___12. Which are sessile?
a. Ciliates & flagellates b. Trematodes & cestodes c. Amebas & rotifers
...these would be types that don't typically move
around - they just sit there.
d. Sponges & coral polyps e. You made that word up
___C___13. Which study is in a "gray" zone where it might be ethology, but it might
a. Determining pain responses in dissected crickets
...are the suburbs a "natural environment"?
Ethology studies behavior in Nature.
b. Studying grizzly bears by watching them through binoculars
c. Tracking coyote feeding patterns in suburban settings
d. Observing dolphin social interactions in Sea World enclosures
e. Watching lots of tv and sleeping, if I can get funding for it
___C___14. When a ciliate with one micronucleus and one macronucleus needs to
replace a worn-out macronucleus, it gets a new one by
a. Fixing the old macronucleus b. Changing the micronucleus into a macronucleus
...all new nuclei, both types, come from
micronuclei copies - but they need to make copies first so there's always
c. Copying the micronucleus and changing a copy d. Copying the macronucleus
e. Going to
a "back-up" micronucleus to use.
___D___15. Reaching the threshold point in a synapse depends upon
a. The connection of two insulation cells b. Where the neuron membranes meet
...you only get an impulse in the next cell by
reaching the theshold of enough neurotransmitter molecules
c. The sequence of gates opening
d. Enough receptors picking up enough neurotransmitters
e. There being something to hold some thres in
on enough receptors.
___A___16. Which interact directly with receptors that are inside the cell?
a. Steroid hormones b. Neurotransmitter c. Digestive enzymes
...the lipid nature of steroid allows them to pass
through the membrane.
d. Exocrine secretions e. Cellular sneaky stuff
___C___17. Which group is almost exclusively found in
a. Ciliates b. Sponges
c. Rotifers d. Trematodes
e. The fresh water sea bass - no, wait a minute...
...it's a feature of the group.
___D___18. Of the Protozoa, Porifera, Cnidaria, and Platyhelminthes, which must be in a watery environment to be active?
a. All but Platyhelminthes b. Only Protozoa c. Only Porifera and Protozoa
d. All of them
...none of them have barriers to allow activity in
air - and they're all found either in water or hosts.
e. Isn't it embarrassing to wet the environment?
Pick TEN Questions to answer in the spaces provided.
NOTE: if you answer MORE than ten, only the first ten will be corrected.
Four Points each. Partial credit is possible.
|1. What are two characteristics shared by both Porifera and Cnidaria, which are not found
in the "higher" animals?|
Only 2 cell layers.
(maybe no tissues).
|2. Define: intermediate host.
where asexual phase of life cycle takes place.
|3. What two adaptations found in animals serve to
increase the velocity of nerve impulses?|
|4. What is usually the purpose of ritualized behavior?
avoid agonistic / fighting behavior.
|5. Define: benthic.
...living on the bottom of bodies of water.
|6. Name or describe two different approaches used to increase surface for absorption of
nutrients in digestive systems.|
Fold inner lining.
Coat lining cells
|7. For each vision system, give
one advantage it has over the other.|
Requires less internal head space.
Lens: Probably produces
|8. Define so that the differences between these behavior terms are clear:|
Evolutionary reason for a behavior pattern.
CAUSATION: Immediate reason for a particular
|9. What are the two major functions (not the parts, but what they do) of the
Control of automatic functions
Coordination of motor functions.
|10. Give examples of
two different classes of warning displays.|
Basic "stand out" coloration.
Increase in apparent size.
|11. In general, processing in vertebrate brains has evolved through which
|12. What are two good things that a tube digestive system can do but a
sac digestive system
Allows "continuous" input of food.
step-by-step breakdown in specialized regions.|
|13. Answer with some detail: what two critical items factor into a species evolving
Cost of territory
Benefit of territory
|14. Give two sets of differences between
Mouth points up
Tentacles on top
|15. Answer for
|Feature that makes
Impulses go both ways in
them different from
feature of which
|16. For animals, a critically important evolutionary step shows up in the platyhelminths.|
|WHY IS IT
Allows production of complex internal organs|
and organ systems.
Select and answer completely any four of the following questions.
NOTE: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
Six Points Each. Partial credit is possible.
|1. Briefly explain how input and output track through a typical nervous system, and include
the general types of structures (including neuron types) involved.|
pick up stimuli and convert it to impulses.|
NEURONS / AFFERENT NEURONS carry impulses into system.|
INTERNEURONS process input, consult memory, make and coordinate response.|
NEURONS / EFFERENT NEURONS carry impulses out.|
and/or GLANDS respond.|
|2. For three basic regions of animal tube digestive systems, give the name of the region
and then describe something that happens there that is not included in the basic name.|
||Food items are caught and
CONDUCTION AND STORAGE REGION
in cheek pouches or crop.|
GRINDING AND PREDIGESTION REGION
||Use of teeth or gizzard;
processing by acids.|
TERMINAL DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION REGION
emulsification of lipids; movement of nutrients into circulation.|
WATER ABSORPTION, WASTE CONCENTRATION REGION
||Feces are produced;
some hard-to-process materials are processed, possibly by symbionts.|
|3. Give three different advantages for each. (Not looking for comparative sets here!)|
types of cooperation
||Better in food extremes.|
||Better with solitary /
||More holding capacity for
|4. What are six different types of environmental input that can be perceived with animal
senses? (Different means that fairly different types of receptors are used)|
Chemicals on a surface (taste)
released into environment (smell)
carried through environment (hearing)|
Physical contact (touch)
of light (sight)
||Up & down
Movement direction (moving balance)
||InfraRed / Heat|
Earth's magnetic field
|5. Name three major parts of the vertebrate forebrain, and for each, briefly
thing that is processed there.|
Sensory input processing; memory connections; memory storage.
"Primitive urges"; monitoring of body functions; command of
Thought center; decision making; emotion processing.
|6. Name the three stages involved in a nerve impulse in an axon, and for
explain what's happening in the cell.|
Ionic imbalance maintained between outside of
cell and surroundings
(more positive outside)
ACTION POTENTIAL / IMPULSE
Wave of gates open, allowing fast movement of ions to neutrality
Ions are pumped, mostly out, to reset resting potential.
|7. For the three major subgroups of Platyhelminthes, give the group name and explain
where one would most likely find specimens from that group.|
Mostly free-living in environment.
On outsides and insides of various host animals.
As adults, in intestines of vertebrate hosts.
|8. Give three of the four major subgroups of protozoans, and for each give one characteristic
found in that group that makes it distinct from the other groups.|
|Almost always have some
sort of pseudopod.|
(Mastigophorans can sometimes, but rarely.)
|Almost always have at least
(Sarcodines can sometimes, but rarely.)
|Always parasites, with
alternation of generations.|
No key for BONUS QUESTIONS.
Answer as many or as few as you wish. You can't lose points on the rest
of the exam by getting these wrong. Partial credit is possible.
In humans, what's the primary purpose of saliva? Three Points.
Which metabolic waste is often mixed with feces before it leaves the body? Three Points.
Why might an animal eat dirt? Two Points Each.
How can we "afford" a blood-brain barrier? Three Points.
We actually have six legitimate, recognized senses. Which one is usually lumped in with one of
the other five (Two Points), and why isn't it considered a separate sense (Two Points)?
Why would an animal exhibit a form of communication that it didn't have a sense to detect? Three
Some animal features are not for survival, but to attract the attention of mates, kind of an
advertisement that says, "you should make babies with me, because they'll be more likely to survive."
Such features as moose antlers, peacock tails, and human breasts, even jewelry and a fancy car are of this type. What about such features makes it reasonable to think that the possessor
actually is better able to get the essential
resources of life? Three Points.
What odd ability do slime molds have? Three
Briefly explain why ciliate sex could be
considered a form of suicide. Three Points.