Class Mammalia -  {Backward Link}

 
 

1a. Produce young in eggs. Australia and vicinity. 
            Order Monotremata
........................................................................ 2

                           INFO LINK

1b. Young spend early life in pouch. Usually Australian. 
            Order Marsupialia
........................................................................... 3

                           INFO LINK   IMAGES LINK

1c. Sloths, anteaters, armadillos, and relatives. 
            Order Edentata
................................................................................ 4

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1d. Front limbs adapted as membranous wings. 
            Order Chiroptera
............................................................................. 5

                            INFO LINK

1e. Bodies rounded to oval; tails with little to no hair; usually 4 toes
   
         on front foot, 5 on back; have 2 front, incisor teeth above
   
         and 2 below, and teeth grow continuously, requiring
   
         constant wear. Order Rodentia...................................................... 7
                            INFO LINK

1f. Similar to 1e, but tails are short and hairy; flaps on lips allow
            closed-mouth gnawing; nostrils can be closed; ears may 
            be long. Order Lagomorpha........................................................ 11

                            INFO LINK

1g. Totally aquatic, commonly marine; streamlined, fish-like bodies.
   
         front limbs modified as paddles; real limbs absent;  tails are
            modified as flukes; head usually not distinct from body. 
            Order Cetacea
................................................................................ 12

                            INFO LINK

1h. Five toes on front foot, four or five on rear foot; canine teeth 
            are relatively large. Primarily meat eaters. 
            Order Carnivora
............................................................................ 16

                            INFO LINK

1i. Mostly aquatic, with legs and feet modified into flippers, although
   
         still capable of movement on land. Order Pinnipedia................ 24
                            MORE

1j. Totally aquatic, with distinct head but no hind limbs; nostrils are
   
         on top of snout; muzzle is hairy. Order Sirenia............................ 25
                            INFO LINK

1k. Quite large; nose modified as trunk; males have large tusks.
   
         Order Proboscidea,   Family Elephantidae............................. 26
                            INFO LINK

1l. Feet have one or three toes, modified as hooves; front of skull 
            is quite lengthened. Order Perissodactyla................................. 27

                            INFO LINK

1m. Feet have two or four toes, sometimes modified as hooves, 
            with the middle two usually bearing the most weight. 
            Order Artiodactyla
......................................................................... 28

                            INFO LINK

1n. Hands are grasping, with opposable thumbs, usually with 
            similar feet;  snout / nose is short; often have good 
            eyesight; brain is well-developed; often have tail. 
            Order Primates
............................................................................... 32

                            INFO LINK

1o. Moderate in size; have furred membrane from neck to front 
            limbs and from front feet to hind feet and to tail. 
            Southeast Asia.  Flying Lemurs. Order Dermoptera,
   
         Family Cynocephalidae........................... Genus Cynocephalus
                            INFO LINK

1p. Back is covered by fused hairs forming overlapping scales; 
            tongue very long and muscular, attached internally to pelvis; 
            no teeth;  skull is smooth cone; stout limbs with large 
            curved claws.  Pangolins. Order Pholidota
            Family Manidae
.......................................................... Genus Manis
                            INFO LINK

1q. Skin is thick, sparsely haired; yellowish-brown to gray-brown; 
            head is cone-shaped, with pig-like snout, and large ears; 
            claws are large and thick, almost hoof-like. Aardvarks. 
            Order Tubilidenta
,
  Family Orycteropodidae
            Genus Orycteropus
............................................ Orycteropus afer
                            INFO LINK

1r. Front feet with 5 toes, back feet with 3, or which the inner toe 
            is clawed and the others have hoof-like nails; soles are 
            soft and adapted as nearly suction cups. Africa and the 
            Middle East.  Hyraxes.
  Order Hyracoidea... Family Procaviidae
                            INFO LINK



2a
. Resembles a hedgehog: round body with spiny hair; long 
            snout. Echidnas or spiny anteaters. Australia, Tasmania, 
            New Guinea................................................ Family Tachyglossidae

2b. Duck-like bill; webbed, paddle-like feet; flattened tail; poison 
            spur.  Platypus. Family Ornithorhynchidae Genus
   
         Ornithorhynchus
.............................. Ornithorhynchus anatinus



NOTE:
Several Marsupial Families not in Key.

3a. American opossums.............................................. Family Didelphidae
                           INFO LINK

3b. Tasmanian "devils." Family Dasyuridae............. Order Sarcophilus
 

3c. Koala "bears." Family Phalangeridae, Genus Phascolarctos
   
                 ............................................................ Phascolarctos cinereus

3d. Heavy-bodied, with large heads. Burrowers. Wombats.
                    .............................................................. Family Phascolomidae

3e. Bipedal, with powerful back legs for hopping and heavy, 
            balancing tail. Kangaroos........................... Family Macropodidiae



4a.
Somewhat flattened body, with coarse hair; powerful clawed 
            feet.  Anteaters..................................... Family Myrmecophagidae

4b. Slow-moving tree-dwellers; generally hang from branches.
   
         Tree Sloths.................................................... Family Bradypodidae

4c. Skin covering is thickened and hardened. Armadillos.
                    ................................................................ Family Dasypodidiae



5a.
Commonly active during times of at least moderate light; 
            rarely any kind of sonar system; often plant eaters.
   
         Includes Flying Foxes.......................... Suborder Macrochiroptera


5b. Commonly active at night; usually have a sonar sensing 
            system;  commonly predators, especially of insects. 
            Suborder Microchiroptera
............................................................. 6



NOTE: Microchiroptera Families here are American only.


6a. Tip of nose has projection upward of triangular flap.
   
         Leafnosed Bats....................................... Family Phyllostomatidae

6b. No modification of nose or muzzle; possess membrane 
            connecting the legs; tail reaches to back edge of 
            membrane.................................................. Family Vespertilionidae

6c. May have minor modifications of nose or muzzle; possess 
            membrane connecting the legs; tail extends well beyond 
            back edge of membrane. Freetailed Bats...... Family Molossidae



NOTE:
Many Rodent Families are not included in this Key.

7a. Semiaquatic; tail distinctly flattened; build complex dams 
            and dens.  Beavers. Family Castoridae
            Genus Castor
.................................................................................... 8

7b. New World Rats and Mice, True Hamsters, Gerbils, and 
            Relatives.  Family Cricetinae.......................................................... 9

7c. Old World Rats and Mice. Commonly found in New World, 
            having spread with colonization. Family Muridae....................... 10

7d. Tail covered with hair, often bushy. Almost always day-active.
   
         Chipmunks, Woodchucks (Marmots), Gophers, and 
            Squirrels, including "Flying" Squirrels and Ground Squirrels.
                    ......................................................................... Family Sciuridae

7e. Usually small; have fur-lined cheek pouches; weak front feet 
            but powerful rear feet and legs; tail usually long. Night 
            active.  Includes Kangaroo Rats and Mice and Pocket 
            Mice................................................................ Family Heteromyidae

7f. Heavyset, with large head and short legs. Many hairs 
            modified as quills, which lack barbs. Old World
            Porcupines......................................................... Family Hystricidae

7g. Like 7f, but with barbed quills. New World Porcupines.
                    ............................................................... Family Erethizontidae

7h. Guinea Pigs and Relatives......................................... Family Caviidae

7i. Moderate to large; hind limbs well-developed, longer than 
            front limbs;  tails are bushy and somewhat short; eyes 
            and ears somewhat large;  feet have fleshy pads; 
            front feet with 4 toes, back with 4 or fewer;
  fine fur, 
            gray or gray-brown. Chinchillas and Viscacha.
                    .................................................................. Family Chinchillidae

7j. Moderate to quite large size (for a rodent). Central and 
            South America.
  Capybaras. Family Hydrochoeridae.
                    ................................................................ Genus Hydrochoerus



8a.
European Beavers............................................................... Castor fiber


8b.
North American Beavers........................................ Castor canadensis



NOTE: Many Cricetinae Genera
not in Key.


9a. Feet are white; bellies are usually white; tail is long.
   
         Deer Mice and White-Footed Mice............... Genus Peromyscus

9b. Rat-like, but with hair on tails, larger ears, and often white 
            feet and bellies. Wood Rats and Packrats.......... Genus Neotoma

9c. Ears and tail are small; fur is dense and long. True 
            Lemmings................................................................ Genus Lemmus

9d. Relatively large; semiaquatic, with tail flattened side-to-
            side.  Muskrats......................................................... Genus Ondatra

9e. Usually brownish-gray with long fur; small ears; somewhat
   
         short tails; black, beady eyes. Voles.................... Genus Microtus

9f. Fur brown above, white below; tails short. Includes most 
            pet hamsters. Genus Mesocricetus......... Mesocricetus auratus

9g. Grayish, with somewhat weakened front legs and stranger 
            back legs. Gerbils................................................... Genus Gerbillus



10a
.
Typical Rats. Almost 600 species................................ Genus Rattus


10b.
Commonly grayish-brown and of uniform color, but 
            includes various laboratory mice................................... Genus Mus

10c. Old World Wood and Field Mice........................... Genus Apodemus



11a
.
Relatively moderate in size; fur is thick and soft; ears 
            longer than wide; limbs, especially hind limbs, are 
            long; skulls have distinct arch in profile. Rabbits and
            Hares..................................................................... Family Leporidae

11b. Relatively small; fur is long and fine; ears are short and 
            rounded;  limbs short and equal in length; tails may not 
            be visible.  Pikas............................................. Family Ochotonidae



12a.
Have distinct, individual teeth. Toothed Whales.
 
            Suborder Odontoceti
.................................................................... 13


12b. Teeth are highly adapted into a filtering structure. 
            Baleen Whales.  Suborder Mysticeti........................................... 15



13a.
Small to moderate size; often have a "forehead" bulge 
            behind snout;  usually with dorsal fin, which often curves 
        backward; usually sleek, streamlined, and fast. Includes 
            many marine Dolphins, Killer Whales, and Pilot Whales. 
            Family Delphinidae
....................................................................... 14

13b. Smallish; snout or beak not well-formed; head squarish, 
            jaws short;  flippers somewhat narrow and pointed; 
            body somewhat thick. Porpoises................. Family Phocoenidae

13c. Small; snout is long and thin; forehead quite bulging; 
            eyes quite small; distinct neck; broad flippers. 
            Fresh Water, South America and Asia. River dolphins.
                    .................................................................. Family Platanistidae

13d. 2 smaller species and 1 large species; head proportionately 
            large, with depression containing special organ, very large 
            or not;  jaw is well under the head; dorsal fin is low and 
            sickle-shaped or rounded. Sperm Whales.
                    .................................................................. Family Physeteridae

13e. Moderate size; snout is long and narrow, sometimes 
            distinctly set off from forehead; dorsal fin fairly far back, 
            small and sickle-shaped; tail fluke with no notch in back 
            edge. Beaked Whales........................................... Family Ziphiidae

13f. Moderate size; snout is short, with high forehead, or missing 
            with long curled tusk; no dorsal fin; white or white and black.
   
         Narwhales and Beluga Whales................... Family Monodontidae



NOTE:
Only a Few Delphinid Genera are Included.

14a. Snout is long and pointed, separated from forehead by 
            distinct groove;  back, flippers, and tail is dark, belly  
           
whitish; an irregular "crisscross" band runs between the 
            two coloration areasCommon Dolphins......... Genus Delphinus

14b. Snout is short and bottle-shaped; back is slightly darker 
            gray than belly. Bottle-Nosed Dolphins................. Genus Tursiops

14c. No snout; head is large and rounded, with somewhat 
            distinct upper lip;  flippers short and sickle-shaped; 
            dorsal fin located well forward;  black with white patch 
            underneath of varying length.
  Pilot Whales.. Genus Globicephala

14d. Moderate to relatively large; snout is at best a blunt point 
            on the faceflippers quite rounded; dorsal quite long, 
            straight or slightly curved back; black with large white 
            markings and white belly.  Killer Whales................ Genus Orcinus



15a.
Large; heads are nearly one-third of total length; dorsal 
            fin quite small or absent; flippers are short and rounded; 
            throat is smooth.  Right Whales and Bowhead Whales.
                    ...................................................................... Family Balaenidae

15b. Throat and chest with deep lengthwise furrows; other 
            traits variable.  Includes Humpback, Blue, Fin, and 
            Minke Whales.............................................. Family Belaeopteridae

15c. Large; body slender, with low dorsal hump; no dorsal fin; 
            flippers are broad; tail with folded ridge on upper surface; 
            throat with 2-3 short grooves. Gray Whales. Family 
            Eschrichtiidae
Genus Eschrichtius.... Eschrichtius robustus



NOTE:
Not All Carnivore groups are Included.


16a. Moderate to large size; tail quite short; ears small and 
            rounded; five toes on front and back foot; walk on entire 
            foot. Bears.  Family Ursidae.......................................................... 17

16b. Small to moderate size; pointed snout; long neck and long 
            slender body;  ears small and rounded; short legs; anal 
            scent glands; often found near or in water. 
            Family Mustelidae
.......................................................................... 19

16c. Small to large size; snout is short, face relatively flat; ears 
            small, may be rounded or pointed; front claws can be 
            retracted; four toes on back foot. Cats. 
            Family Felidae
................................................................................. 20

16d. Moderate size; snout somewhat long, often a bit pointed; 
            ears usually large and pointed, often erect; four toes on 
   
         back foot.  Dogs. Family Canidae............................................... 22

16e. Small to moderate size; snout usually short, with broad 
            face; ears usually short and erect; all feet with 5 toes; 
            claws short, curved, sometimes partly retractable. 
            Family Procyonidae
...................................................................... 23

16f. Bear-like but generally more plant-eaters; heads round, 
            snout short.  Pandas........................................... Family Ailurinidae

16g. Moderate to large size; head somewhat large, with rounded 
            ears;  front legs longer than back legs; tail bushy; often 
            marked with stripes or spots. Hyenas............... Family Hyaenidae



17a.
Coloration fairly uniform, except perhaps for snout or slightly
   
         lighter underneath. Typical Bears. Genus Ursus........................ 18

17b. Relatively small; muzzle grayish-white to orange; eyes and 
            ears are small; often with yellowish crescent-shaped 
            marking on chest; tongue very long; claws very long and 
            curved.  Southeast Asia. Sun Bears. Genus Helarctos.
                    ................................................................. Helarctos malayanus

17c. Large head; muzzle long and white; ears are rounded; hair 
            is long and shaggy, especially on back of neck and 
            shoulders; have whitish or yellowish "V"-shaped chest 
            marking; claws very long and hooked; no front incisors. 
            Central Southern Asia.
  Sloth Bears. Genus Melursus.
                    ....................................................................... Melursus ursinus

17d. Black, with yellow or white markings around the face, 
            sometimes the chest. South American. Spectacled Bear.

   
         Genus Tremarctos........................................ Tremarctos ornatus



18a.
Moderate size; black, often with light muzzle; North American
   
         Black Bears......................................................... Ursus americanus

18b. May be quite large; usually dark brown, but may be quite 
            lighter or darker. Brown Bears and Grizzly Bears..... Ursus arctos

18c. May be quite large; hair is white. Polar Bears....... Ursus maritimus

18d. Black, but may have cream-colored crescent on chest 
            and similar color on lips and chin; has longer hair on 
            back of neck and shoulders. Asiatic Black Bear.
                    ........................................................................ Ursus thibetanus



NOTE:
Several Mustelidae Groups Not Included.

19a. Fur is water-repellent, back toes are webbed. Found in or 
            near water.  Otters............................................. Subfamily Lutrinae

19b. Fur is mostly black, with white markings; body usually 
            somewhat stout; have powerful defensive scent glands. 
            Skunks........................................................... Subfamily Mephitinae

19c. Back is gray, with black belly and legs; face is white, with 
            dark stripe on each side; body is stocky, legs and tail 
            are short.  Eurasian Badgers. Subfamily Melinae
            Genus Meles
................................................................ Meles meles

19d. Black, with white stripe running from above eyes, down 
            back where they can be quite wide, to tail. Africa to India. 
            Ratel or Honey
Badger. Subfamily Mellivorinae
            Genus Mellivora
............................................... Mellivora capensis

19e. Back is grayish to reddish; belly is light brown; face is 
            light with black patches and a white central stripe from 
            nose to shoulders or farther. North American Badger. 
            Subfamily Taxidiinae
,
  Genus Taxidea............... Taxidea taxus

19f. Body usually narrow and long, often with fine fur. 
            Includes Weasels, Ferrets, Martens, Fishers, Minks, 
            Ermine, Polecats, and Wolverines............. Subfamily Mustelinae



20a.
Usually relatively large; commonly covered with camouflage
   
         markings. Subfamily Pantherinae, Genus Panthera............... 21

20b. Small to moderate size; large group, including Lynx, Cougar,
   
         Ocelot, Caracal, domestic cats, many others.
                    ........................................................................ Subfamily Felinae

20c. Moderate to large, but slender, with small head; coat spotted, 
            black on yellowish; tail has rings and light end tuft; face has 
            spot / stripe from eyes to mouth; claws not fully retractable.
   
         Cheetahs. Subfamily Acinonychinae,  Genus Acinonyx.
                    ........................................................................ Acinonyx jubatus



NOTE:
Included are only a few members of the Genus Panthera.


21a. Brownish, rather uniform in color; males often with dark 
            mane.  Lions.................................................................. Panthera leo

21b. Marked with black stripes against a white or orange coat. 
            Tigers.......................................................................... Panthera tigris

21c. Marked with spots, often relatively small, against a yellowish 
            coat.  African and Asian. Leopards...................... Panthera pardus

21d. Marked with spots, often rings, against a tan to orange coat.
   
         Americas. Jaguars..................................................... Panthera onca



NOTE:
Not all Canidae Species are Included.


22a. Domestic dog and relatives, including wolf and dingo. 
            Genus Canis
.................................................................. Canis lupus

22b. Large, erect ears; long, drooping tail; grayish, usually 
            with black stripe down back and across shoulders. 
            Coyotes. Genus Canis............................................... Canis latrans

22c. Relatively smaller; ears quite large. Common Jackals 
            and Golden Jackals. Genus Canis........................... Canis aureus

22d. Common Red Fox. Genus Vulpes............................. Vulpes vulpes

22e. Arctic Fox. Genus Alopex......................................... Alopex lagopus

22f. Grey Fox. Genus Urocyon...................... Urocyon cinereoargentus



23a.
Long, prehensile tail; yellowish-brown coat; rounded head
   
         and ears. Kinkajous. Genus Potos............................ Potos flavus

23b. Long tail with light brown and black bands; large eyes and 
            ears;  claws partly retractable; area between footpads is 
            furred.  North America. Ringtail Cats and relatives.
                    .................................................................... Genus Bassariscus

23c. Tail is long, often with faded rings, often carried upright; 
            gray-brownish coat, often uneven in length; snout is long 
            and pointed; has white spots on face, varied among 
            species.  Americas. Coati.......................................... Genus Nasua

23d. Tail fairly thick; body somewhat stocky; face marked with 
            black "mask" across eyes; found near water. Raccoons.

   
         Genus Procyon.......................................................... Procyon lotor



24a.
Bodies are slender and long, covered in fur in shades of 
            brown;  small external ears are present; front flippers are 
            long, with small claws; hind flippers are large and can be 
            used for support on land; tail small. Sea Lions and 
            Fur Seals................................................................. Family Otariidae

24b. Bodies are slender and long, with stiff, short fur; no external
   
         ears; front flippers are somewhat short, with distinct claws;
   
         hind flippers large but cannot support body on land;  tail 
            short and stubby. Seals......................................... Family Phocidae

24c. Bodies are huge and stocky, with little hair; face is broad 
            and round, with large tusks and hairy muzzle; no external 
            ears; large flippers; back flippers can support weight on 
            land. Walruses.
  Family Odobenidae, Genus Odobenus.
                    ................................................................. Odobenus rosmarus



25a.
Upper lip with shallow notch; tail is deeply notched; flippers 
            lack nails. Dugongs. Family Dugonidae, Genus Dugong.
                    ............................................................................ Dugong dugon

25b. Upper lip with deep notch; tail without notch; flippers have 
            visible but rudimentary nails. Manatees. Family Trichechidae.
                    .........................................................................
Genus Trichecus



26a.
Ears are quite large. African Elephants.
Genus Loxodonta.
                    .................................................................... Loxodonta africana


26b. Ears are small. Asian Elephants. Genus Elephas.
                    ....................................................................... Elephas maximus



27a.
Skull is thick; body is usually stocky; covered with hair, 
            which is often short, but usually with longer mane and 
            forelock on head;  long, thin limbs with single hoof. 
            Includes horses, zebras, and relatives. Family Equidae.
                    ............................................................................... Genus Equus

27b. Head is large and slung low near ground, with 1 or 2 
            cone-shaped horns on the midline; body is large, grayish 
            or brownish; legs are thick and somewhat short.
            Rhinoceros.................................................. Family Rhinocerotidae

27c. Head has fleshy proboscis formed from snout and upper 
            lip; eyes are small;  ears are oval and erect; moderate in 
            size, usually dark brown or gray, with relatively narrow 
            shoulders but rounded midsection; tail is short; body has 
            scattered bristly hairs; may have short mane.
  Tapirs. 
            Family Tapiridae
..................................................... Genus Tapirus



28a.
Large to very large; head is long and narrow, with short 
            knobby horns, thin lips, and long tongues. 
            Family Giraffidae
............................................................................ 29

28b. Middle toes modified as hooves, with outer toes quite small; 
            legs are slender; usually brown or gray; young usually 
            spotted;  males usually with bony antlers, seasonal in 
            temperate climates.  Family Cervidae......................................... 30

28c. Toes as in 28b; males and often females have horns, short 
            or long but not branched. Family Bovidae................................... 31

28d. Moderate size; body is stocky, brown above and white below; 
            head and neck marked with white and black; antlers in both 
            males and females with two branches, shorter branch directed
            forward.  Western North America.  Pronghorn Antelope.
   
         Family AntilocapridaeGenus Antilocapra.
                    ............................................................... Antilocapra americana

28e. Moderate in size; body is stocky, usually rounded, and has 
            little hair;  eyes are usually small and located high on skull; 
            ears usually small and somewhat pointed; skull is often long 
            and somewhat flattened; snout is commonly mobile, with
            forward-facing nostrils in a disk-like nose. Pigs and Hogs.
                    .............................................................................. Family Suidae

28f. Face is pig-like; body covered with coarse fur, gray or brown 
            with markings of white or yellow. Americas. Peccaries.
                    .................................................................. Family Tayassuidae

28g. Often quite large; head is very large, with high-set eyes 
            and a large, squarish mouth with tusk-like front teeth; skin 
            is almost without hair; legs are short; tail is short, with tuft.
   
         Hippopotamus.......................................... Family Hippopotamidae

28h. Somewhat large; head is small, with deep cleft in upper lip; 
            neck and are long and slender; body is hairy, with length 
            of hair varying;  may have one or two humps on back; toes 
            are spread and often wide at base. Camels, Llamas, and
            relatives................................................................. Family Camelidae

28i. Deer-like but small, without antlers or horns; back is brown, 
            with white spots or stripes; belly is white; body somewhat 
            shortened;  muzzles lack hair. Southeast Asia and Africa.
   
         Mouse Deer, Chevrotains................................... Family Tragulidae

28j. Somewhat deer-like but small and without antlers; back 
            higher at rear than shoulders; dark brown, usually with 
            small light spots;  male canine teeth often visible when 
            mouth is closed; produce thick oily substance. 
            Musk Deer. Family Moschidae.......................... Genus Moschus



29a. Neck is somewhat long; body is dark brown, with whitish 
            stripes along hindquarters and legs; ankles are white; 
            cheeks, throat, and chest are whitish to tan. Okapis.

   
         Genus Okapia...................................................... Okapia johnstoni

29b. Neck is very long; body is yellowish with black ringed spots.
   
         Giraffes. Genus Giraffa............................... Giraffa camelopardus



NOTE:
Only a few Cervidae Genera Included here.

30a. Quite large; antlers are broad and curved upward; dark brown;
            often have "beard." Moose. Genus Alces................... Alces alces

30b. Back is brownish-gray, often distinctly reddish; white 
            markings on face behind nose and around eyes, in ears, 
            on chin and throat, on belly and underside of tail. 
            Whitetail Deer. 
Genus Odocoileus....... Odocoileus virginianus

30c. Moderate to large; brown to olive, often with white belly, 
            backside and legs; coat is dense and wooly; feet are 
            broad and flat.  Reindeer, Caribou. Genus Rangifer.
                    ....................................................................... Rangifer tarandus



31a.
Horns with multiple knobs, curving out then up; moderate 
            to light brown, lighter underneath; ear tips black.
  Impala. 
            Subfamily Aepycerotinae
............................... Genus Aepyceros

31b. Moderate size; horns somewhat curved, ringed or not; 
            muzzles somewhat cow-like. Wildebeests, Gnus, Topis.
                    ............................................................ Subfamily Alcelaphinae

31c. Small to moderate size; usually with slender legs and 
            necks.  Includes Gazelles, Springboks, and Dik-diks.
                    ............................................................... Subfamily Antilopinae

31d. Moderate to large; often with stripes or other markings.
   
         Includes Roan and Sable Antelopes and Oryx.
                    .......................................................... Subfamily Hippotraginae

31e. Neck and body long, legs are short; have mane; horns
   
         curve forward. Waterbucks........................ Subfamily Reduncinae

31f. Small to large; usually wooly or hairy; horns vary from
   
         absent to curved around head. Includes Sheep, 
            Goats, and Musk Ox......................................... Subfamily Caprinae

31g. Usually large; snout usually wide at nostrils; horns usually
   
         fairly simple up-curves. Includes Cows, Bison, Kudu,
   
         Eland, and Buffaloes.......................................... Subfamily Bovinae



32a.
Second digit of hind foot often modified as grooming claw;
   
         snout with toughened skin on nose; lower front teeth
   
         usually form "toothcomb"; mostly tree-living. Old World only.
   
         Includes more "primitive" primates. 
            Suborder Strepsirhini
.................................................................... 33

32b. Hind foot, nose and teeth not as in 32a; more "advanced."
   
         Suborder Haplorhini...................................................................... 34


33a. Body and limbs are slender; tail long and heavily furred; 
            fur is soft and wooly, may be bright or contrastingly marked;
   
         ears at least partly furred, with tufts on tip; snout usually
   
         somewhat long. Madagascar. Lemurs............... Family Lemuridae

33b. Tail is long; hind limbs longer than front limbs; hind feet 
            large but narrow; hands long and strong; snout usually 
            not as long as in 33a; ears small; have fold of skin from 
            arms to chest.  Madagascar. Includes Indrids, Avahis, 
            Sifikas, Indris............................................................. Family Indridae

33c. Small; tail is long and bushy; fur is long, wooly, dark 
            brown;  hands with very long fingers, the third especially 
            so;  ears not furred and quite mobile; eyes large, 
            yellow-brown;  no toothcomb; front teeth quite large. 
            Aye-Ayes.  Family Daubentoniidae, Genus Daubentonia
                   
............................................. Daubentonia madagascariensis

33d. Small and light; tail is long; fur is soft and wooly, darker 
            on back, gray or brown; hind limbs longer than front limbs; 
            hands are well-developed, with disk-pads on fingertips; 
            can leap long
distances. Africa. Galagos, Bushbabies.
                     .................................................................. Family Galagonidae

33e. Small but somewhat stout; tail is very short or absent; 
            eyes are large;  usually move slowly; do not leap. 
            Africa and Asia. Lorises........................................... Family Loridae


34a. Small; tail is naked except for a few hairs on end; fur is 
            silky, brownish, usually darker on back; hind limbs longer 
            than forelimbs; digits are long, with soft pads; head is 
            round, eyes are large; neck is quite short. Southeast 
            Asian islands. Tarsiers.......................................... Family Tarsiidae

34b. Small to moderate size; tail is long and furred, often 
            grasping; brown, gray, or reddish, some with strong 
            markings; limbs are long; nails are curved, not claws; 
            heads are rounded; nostrils separated by pad and 
   
         face slightly to the sides. Americas. Include Capuchin, 
            Howler, Wooly, Squirrel, and Night Monkeys........ Family Cebidae

34c. Moderate to large, often stocky; tail of varying length, 
            never grasping;  gray or brown, sometimes with bright 
            markings, including bare patches on rump; hind limbs 
            usually longer than front limbs;  nails are flat; palms and 
            soles lack hair. Old World only.  Include Macaque, Rhesus, 
            Colobus, and Proboscis Monkeys, Baboons, Mandrills, 
            Langurs, and Mangabeys........................... Family Cercopithedae

34d. Small, sometimes tiny; tail of moderate length, not grasping; 
            fur is silky, often brightly colored; usually with tuft on head; 
            face barely furred or naked; hands and feet are squirrel-like, 
            with long palms and short digits, and with sharp claws. 
            Central and South America. Marmosets and Tamarins.
                    .................................................................. Family Callitrichidae

34e. Moderate size; no tail; usually black, gray, or brownish, 
            commonly with white markings on face, hands, and feet; 
            front limbs much longer than hind limbs; hands with deep 
            cleft between thumb and first finger. 
            Southeast Asia.   Gibbons and Siamangs.  
            Family Hylobatidae
............................................ Genus Hylobates

34f. Large and usually stocky; no tail; black, gray, brown/reddish 
            or essentially hairless; forearms are well-developed; arms 
            are usually longer than legs; stance is upright or close to it; 
            face is expressive, usually with prominent jaw; nostrils face 
            forward and downward; vocalization is complex; make and 
            use nests of various sorts; usually produce single young, 
            with long period of parental care. Family Hominidae................ 35


35a. Relatively smaller; black or dark brown hair; skin darkens 
            with age; ears are large. West and Central Africa. 
            Chimpanzees. Genus Pan.................................... Pan troglodytes

35b. Large but with slender arms and legs; reddish, with thin hair; 
            arms much longer and stronger than legs; snout bulges 
            slightly; forehead fairly tall; adult males with cheek pads. 
            Sumatra and Borneo.  Orangutans. 
            Genus Pongo
..................................................... Pongo pygmaeus

35c. Large and heavily built; dark, with hair everywhere but face 
            and pads of hands and feet; arms longer than legs and 
            very powerful; heavy brow ridge; back of skull extends 
            over very muscular neck.  Africa. Gorillas. 
            Genus Gorilla
.............................................................. Gorilla gorilla

35d. Moderate to large; mostly hairless or sparsely haired, except
            for crown;  legs somewhat longer than arms; walks on legs; 
            poor climbers.  Humans. Genus Homo................. Homo sapiens


 

 
     

 


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First Written 1986;  Last Update 2006;  Web Version 2001,  M. McDarby

 

 

 

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