SC 139 - First Exam 2009
Numbers are linked to
relevant passages in the book.
On the line to the left, place the letter of the
choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.
1. Which is used to determine resolution
___C___ a. Control groups
b. Maximum image size
c. Smallest visible gap
d. A different imaging system
e. How far into the new year you can go and not break them
...if the resolution is up to it, a gap is visible.
2. In which
organizational approach do family trees "split" based on particular features?
...those features define the differences between
ancestors and descendants.
3. Artificial selection would most likely be used
___D___ a. A particular microscope type
b. How species are placed into families
c. The control test in an experiment
d. A new breed of rose
e. Is it robots?
...it's done by people to change the basic "type" of
domestic species (which includes plants).
4. Prokaryotes would have
___C___ a. A nucleus but no membrane
b. Both a membrane and a nucleus
c. A membrane but no nucleus
d. Neither a membrane nor a nucleus
e. A hard time getting people to spell their name right
...all cells have membranes.
5. In Redi's tests of meat and maggots, he
was trying to show that
___B___ a. Spontaneous generation worked a certain way
b. Spontaneous generation did not happen
c. Rotting attracts insects
d. Maggots must breathe
e. Biology is best when really really gross
...the experiment was to show that rotting meat did not
"turn into" maggots.
6. The Dutchman Leewenhoek's contribution to
__B____ a. Electron imaging systems
b. Lenses that didn't prism the light
c. Putting multiple lenses together
d. Many good stains
e. Um, three dollars-?
...this was a big problem with thick magnifying lenses.
7. Which is someone easily allowed to do?
a. Change an Order-level group to a Suborder
b. Change the name assigned to a Genus
c. Switch around a Species name
d. Invent a new name for an established Class
e. Switch shoes with someone on a train
...the group assignments are flexible, but you leave
the names alone.
8. Figuring out the classification of a fossil
is usually done with
___B___ a. Layer analysis
b. Comparison of homologous features
c. Chemical analysis
d. Comparison of analogous features
e. Some sort of big book
...you're comparing structure of bones, or
shells, or teeth...
philosophy leads people to say that scientists only find what they want to
___D___ a. Nihilism
b. Culture blindness
e. When did this become a philosophy course?
...it's the idea that a product of people is affected
by those people's own beliefs.
10. Between single-celled and multi-celled
___B___ a. No other type
b. Colonial organisms
c. Giant-celled organisms
d. 2-layered organisms
e. Squiggly things
...it's not the only type of colonials, but single-cell
groups acting like multi-celled systems is an important thing.
11. Uniformitarianism is very
useful in understanding
___C___ a. Classification
b. Scientific testing
c. Things from the past
d. Cells e.
What some women find attractive
...it's the starting assumption that processes in the
past work like those processes in the present.
12. Cells have chemistry which is driven
___B___ a. Sugars
c. DNA d.
e. Tiny motors
...it's the basic metabolic driving molecules, enzymes
Answer any eight of the following questions for 4
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.
1. What is scientific peer review?
Scientific work is "gone over" by other scientists
working in the same field.
|At what stage is it
most likely to happen?
When articles are being published -
peers (editors and reviewers) go over the research and decide whether it
needs changing and whether it's good enough to publish.
explain why, it is thought, that cells have a maximum workable
cells get bigger, their volume (and all of the metabolic chemistry in
there) increases faster than the surface (where metabolic needs are
brought in and waste products removed), until the input and outgo can't
meet the needs.
specimens into thin slices.
|Why does it need
to be done?
Allows the beams of transmission microscopes to go through the specimens
so they can be studied.
4. Put these taxonomic groups in the proper
order from largest to smallest: Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom,
Order, Phylum, Species, Superfamily.
of the first ideas to be based on fossils was thought to be
absolutely in conflict with The Bible, although
almost no one still feels this way. What idea was it?
idea that species could go extinct - people felt that perfect creations
for Eden could not die out.
6. Briefly explain why a placebo is
a good control.
duplicates the details of the treatment, with just the detail being
studied removed - a classic control.
found that two factors of comparison between an island and the
mainland could be connected to how different the living
things are. What are those two factors?
Distance between them
Similarity or difference in basic conditions
two disadvantages that electron microscopes have when
compared to light microscopes.
Much more expensive
More difficult to use
Requires vacuum inside
Specimen prep is difficult and often toxic
is an organelle?
structure in a cell that does a particular job.
10. First two Kingdoms of Life:
11. Why was
Alfred Russel Wallace really important to the history of
needed the "push" of Wallace's article to publish his own, more
comprehensive ideas about evolution.
12. Under the best current definition,
how is a species defined? (Defined, NOT named!)
group that, under natural conditions, only reproduces within that group.
are the two categories of microscope that are based on how the
imaging beam interacts with the specimen?
Transmission (beam goes through
Scanning (beam bounces off specimen)
14. How do
scientists "match up" sedimentary rock layers that are found in
compare types of fossil organisms particular to each layer.
Answer any four of the following questions for
Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.
1. For four of the six basic
Kingdoms of Life, give the name of the Kingdom and enough
features to clearly set that Kingdom's members apart from those of the
Multicellular, photosynthesizers (there are several groups with
Multicellular, usually mobile, absorb nutrients from internal spaces.
Multicellular, usually made up of fibers, absorb nutrients through
Single-celled or very simple multi-celled, eukaryotes.
Single-celled prokaryotes, more common in "regular" environments.
Single-celled prokaryotes, more likely to be found in "extreme"
are the four statements of the Cell Theory?
All living things are made up of at
least one cell.
Cells only come from other related cells.
The smallest thing that can be
considered "alive" is a cell.
Cells are more similar than different.
to Malthus, what are three different ways that Nature
Famine (shortage of food)
War / conflict
left behind two different ideas that were wrong, but which had a
lot of influence. Briefly explain (don't just give the
"title"!) how each concept is supposed to work.
Features developed by individuals during their lifetimes can be
passed to offspring in the new, developed form.
Evolution is a form of progress with set future goals.
5. Define these four terms associated with
Things that aren't being tested but which
affect the results.
Experiment done under natural conditions.
Results that come from some aspect of the
process, not connected to variable.
Comparison test, duplicates test with focal detail
removed or altered.
6. Fill in:
Binomial nomenclature is the term given to rules about naming
|What are three of those
Always two words in name.
Name is considered "foreign" -
italicized or underlined.
First word is always genus species is
Second word means nothing by itself.
First word is always capitalized.
Second word is never capitalized.
Normally abbreviated with initial of
genus and second word spelled out.
Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers
will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial
credit on these answers.
In ancient times, classification into groups was usually based on analogies. For
Three Points, give an example of such a classification group.
Which ancient natural Kingdom is no longer considered a Kingdom? Three Points.
What was Carolus Linnaeus' actual name? Three Points.
Which Kingdom in the 6-Kingdom system is the newest there? Three Points.
When researchers found aluminum deposited in the brains of Alzheimer's victims,
where had it come from? Three Points.
Where did Malpighi see circulating blood? Three Points.
Which is the only Kingdom where cells never have cell walls? Three Points.
Why was it important to the company to have someone like Darwin on a ship like
the Beagle? Three Points.
How long was the Beagle supposed to be gone? Two Points.
How long was the Beagle actually gone? Two Points.