SC 139 - First Exam 2009
Answer Key

Numbers are linked to relevant passages in the book.


On the line to the left, place the letter of the choice that best answers the question.
Three Points Each. NOTE: "e" answers are never the correct answer.

                   1.   Which is used to determine resolution limits?

___C___     a. Control groups             b. Maximum image size            c. Smallest visible gap             d. A different imaging system
                                                e. How far into the new year you can go and not break them

                        ...if the resolution is up to it, a gap is visible.

                    2.   In which organizational approach do family trees "split" based on particular features?

___A___     a. Cladistics             b. Kingdomology            c. Homologistics             d. Systematics            e. Chain-saw-mology

                        ...those features define the differences between ancestors and descendants.

                    3.  Artificial selection would most likely be used in developing

___D___     a. A particular microscope type            b. How species are placed into families            c. The control test in an experiment
                  d. A new breed of rose                                                            e. Is it robots?

              's done by people to change the basic "type" of domestic species (which includes plants).

                    4.   Prokaryotes would have

___C___     a. A nucleus but no membrane                b. Both a membrane and a nucleus                c. A membrane but no nucleus
                  d. Neither a membrane nor a nucleus                      e. A hard time getting people to spell their name right

                        ...all cells have membranes.

                    5.   In Redi's tests of meat and maggots, he was trying to show that

___B___     a. Spontaneous generation worked a certain way                        b. Spontaneous generation did not happen
                  c. Rotting attracts insects                                                          d. Maggots must breathe
                                                            e. Biology is best when really really gross

                        ...the experiment was to show that rotting meat did not "turn into" maggots.

                    6.  The Dutchman Leewenhoek's contribution to microscopes:

__B____     a. Electron imaging systems            b. Lenses that didn't prism the light            c. Putting multiple lenses together
                  d. Many good stains                                                    e. Um, three dollars-?

                        ...this was a big problem with thick magnifying lenses.

                    7.   Which is someone easily allowed to do?

___A___     a. Change an Order-level group to a Suborder                        b. Change the name assigned to a Genus
                  c. Switch around a Species name                                          d. Invent a new name for an established Class
                                                            e. Switch shoes with someone on a train

                        ...the group assignments are flexible, but you leave the names alone.

                    8.   Figuring out the classification of a fossil is usually done with

___B___     a. Layer analysis             b. Comparison of homologous features            c. Chemical analysis             d. Comparison of analogous features
                                                                                            e. Some sort of big book

              're comparing structure of bones, or shells, or teeth...


                    9.   Which philosophy leads people to say that scientists only find what they want to find?

___D___     a. Nihilism             b. Culture blindness            c. Atheism             d. Post-Modernism             e. When did this become a philosophy course?

              's the idea that a product of people is affected by those people's own beliefs.

                    10.  Between single-celled and multi-celled organisms are

___B___     a. No other type             b. Colonial organisms            c. Giant-celled organisms             d. 2-layered organisms            e. Squiggly things

              's not the only type of colonials, but single-cell groups acting like multi-celled systems is an important thing.

                    11.  Uniformitarianism is very useful in understanding

___C___     a. Classification             b. Scientific testing             c. Things from the past             d. Cells            e. What some women find attractive

              's the starting assumption that processes in the past work like those processes in the present.

                    12.  Cells have chemistry which is driven by

___B___     a. Sugars             b. Proteins             c. DNA            d. Membranes             e. Tiny motors

              's the basic metabolic driving molecules, enzymes and such.


Answer any eight of the following questions for 4 Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than eight, only the first eight will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.   What is scientific peer review?

     Scientific work is "gone over" by other scientists working in the same field.


At what stage is it most likely to happen?

       When articles are being published - peers (editors and reviewers) go over the research and decide whether it needs changing and whether it's good enough to publish.


2.   Briefly explain why, it is thought, that cells have a maximum workable size. cells get bigger, their volume (and all of the metabolic chemistry in there) increases faster than the surface (where metabolic needs are brought in and waste products removed), until the input and outgo can't meet the needs.
3.   What is sectioning?

     Cutting of specimens into thin slices.


Why does it need to be done?

     Allows the beams of transmission microscopes to go through the specimens so they can be studied.


4.  Put these taxonomic groups in the proper order from largest to smallest: Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Species, Superfamily.
1   Kingdom Phylum Class Order
Superfamily Family Genus Species
5.   One of the first ideas to be based on fossils was thought to be absolutely in conflict with The Bible, although almost no one still feels this way. What idea was it?

       ...the idea that species could go extinct - people felt that perfect creations for Eden could not die out.
6.   Briefly explain why a placebo is a good control. duplicates the details of the treatment, with just the detail being studied removed - a classic control.
7.   Darwin found that two factors of comparison between an island and the mainland could be connected to how different the living things are. What are those two factors?
Distance between them Similarity or difference in basic conditions

8.   Give two disadvantages that electron microscopes have when compared to light microscopes.

Much more expensive

More difficult to use

Requires vacuum inside

Specimen prep is difficult and often toxic

9.   What is an organelle?

       ...a structure in a cell that does a particular job.
10.  First two Kingdoms of Life:
Plants Animals
Earliest "split off" Kingdom:     Fungi
11.  Why was Alfred Russel Wallace really important to the history of evolution?

       ...Darwin needed the "push" of Wallace's article to publish his own, more comprehensive ideas about evolution.
12.  Under the best current definition, how is a species defined? (Defined, NOT named!)

       ...a group that, under natural conditions, only reproduces within that group.
13.  What are the two categories of microscope that are based on how the imaging beam interacts with the specimen?
Transmission (beam goes through specimen) Scanning (beam bounces off specimen)
14.  How do scientists "match up" sedimentary rock layers that are found in different places?

       ...they compare types of fossil organisms particular to each layer.


Answer any four of the following questions for Eight Points Each.
Note: if you answer more than four, only the first four will be corrected.
You can get partial credit on these answers.

1.   For four of the six basic Kingdoms of Life, give the name of the Kingdom and enough features to clearly set that Kingdom's members apart from those of the other five.
Plantae Multicellular, photosynthesizers (there are several groups with single-celled photosynthesizers).
Animalia Multicellular, usually mobile, absorb nutrients from internal spaces.
Fungi Multicellular, usually made up of fibers, absorb nutrients through outside surfaces.
Protista Single-celled or very simple multi-celled, eukaryotes.
Monera Single-celled prokaryotes, more common in "regular" environments.
Archaea Single-celled prokaryotes, more likely to be found in "extreme" environments.
2.   What are the four statements of the Cell Theory?
All living things are made up of at least one cell. Cells only come from other related cells.
The smallest thing that can be considered "alive" is a cell. Cells are more similar than different.
3.   According to Malthus, what are three different ways that Nature prevents overpopulation? Famine (shortage of food)


War / conflict
4.  Lamarck left behind two different ideas that were wrong, but which had a lot of influence. Briefly explain (don't just give the "title"!) how each concept is supposed to work.
Features developed by individuals during their lifetimes can be passed to offspring in the new, developed form.
Evolution is a form of progress with set future goals.
5. Define these four terms associated with scientific method.
Confounding      Things that aren't being tested but which can still
factors:                   affect the results.
Field Test:   Experiment done under natural conditions.
Artifacts:      Results that come from some aspect of the experimental
                      process, not connected to variable.
Control       Comparison test, duplicates test with focal detail
Test:                removed or altered.
6.   Fill in:
                             Binomial nomenclature is the term given to rules about naming   species    .
What are three of those rules? Always two words in name.
Name is considered "foreign" - italicized or underlined. First word is always genus species is in.
Second word means nothing by itself. First word is always capitalized.
Second word is never capitalized. Normally abbreviated with initial of genus and second word spelled out.


Answer as many as you are able. Wrong answers will not result in points being lost from the main exam. You can get partial credit on these answers.

In ancient times, classification into groups was usually based on analogies. For Three Points, give an example of such a classification group.

Which ancient natural Kingdom is no longer considered a Kingdom? Three Points.

What was Carolus Linnaeus' actual name? Three Points.

Which Kingdom in the 6-Kingdom system is the newest there? Three Points.

When researchers found aluminum deposited in the brains of Alzheimer's victims, where had it come from? Three Points.

Where did Malpighi see circulating blood? Three Points.

Which is the only Kingdom where cells never have cell walls? Three Points.

Why was it important to the company to have someone like Darwin on a ship like the Beagle? Three Points.

How long was the Beagle supposed to be gone? Two Points.

How long was the Beagle actually gone? Two Points.




Michael McDarby.

SC 139

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